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  • Neophocaena phocaenoides

    Common Name:Indo Pacific finless porpoise

    General Description:The finless Porpoise, like the Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris), is said to present the appearance of a small Beluga. The melon is rounded, and there is no beak. The mouthline is curved upwards towards the eye. Behind the blowhole is a slight depression, like a neck crease. The animal enjoys flexibility of this neck, and the head can be rotated freely. Interestingly, this flexibility is also a characteristic of the beluga, which is classified in a different family.The dorsal fin is completely absent, and an area of the skin behind where the fin should be, is dark and covered with small rounded projections or tubercles. The finless porpoise’s flippers are relatively long with blunt tips. The colour is uniform grey-black, often with a bluish tinge and a lighter off-white ventral surface. The lips and chin of this animal are lighter. Juveniles and new born calves are slightly lighter grey in colour than the adults, with white lips and some white colouration around the genital regions. In general, porpoises have a smooth appearance, which gives them the local name of Buliya or Bulga (the smooth or slippery one) in Sindhudurg, Maharashtra. The name ‘Finless Black Porpoise’ was also once widely used for this species. This is not very apt, as the porpoise turns black only after death.

    Size: Finless Porpoises grow to a maximum length of about 1.9 m. They weigh 30 to 45 kg.

    Appearance At Sea: Generally found in pairs, groups of up to 10 Finless Porpoises are sometimes seen. Young calves are said to travel clinging to their mothers’ backs.The Finless Porpoise is said to make a chirping sound, this being one of the reasons for its Malayalam name Eleyan eedi.

    While breathing they rise so that they just touch the surface with their blowholes. The lack of dorsal fin makes it look as though the back is submerged but it in fact reaches the surface enough to reveal the absence of the fin.

    After 3-4 abrupt breaths the porpoises dive for 45-75 seconds, often surfacing around 100m away. They are quick and lively underwater, swimming just beneath the surface with sudden, darting or circling movements

    Found In:These porpoises inhabit inshore coastal waters and estuaries, and are said to frequent rivers. They can occur quite far from shore (upto 200 km) and in waters upto 100-150 m in depth. They feed mainly on demersal species like small fish, cephalopods and crustaceans. Finless Porpoises are found in the same habitat as humpback dolphins but rarely at the same time.

    Records from India: Stranding records confirm the species’ presence across all the coastal states of peninsular India. There are many instances of this porpoise being washed ashore or being found in fishermen’s catches, or entangled in gill nets. These are generally single specimens, but up to 17 animals have been caught together. 

    Date : 1827
    Details : Skulls, an incomplete skeleton and a mounted specimen collected by Dussumier from Malabar coast, in the Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle,Laboratoire d’Anatomie Comparee.
    References : De Silva, 1987

    Date : 1866 [?]
    Details : “Delphinapterus molagen” described by Owen from “Madras”.
    References : De Silva, 1987

    Date : 1908
    Details : Several specimens purchased at Trivandrum.
    References : Pillay, 1926

    Date : [?]
    Details : Skull and foetus from the mouth of Bombay Harbour in the British Museum (Natural History).
    References : De Silva, 1987

    Date : [?]
    Details : Three skulls from the Malabar coast in the Bombay Natural History Society.
    References : De Silva, 1987

    Date : December 1935 [?]
    Details : Ten porpoises slaughtered in a lagoon in the Laccadives.
    References : Burton, 1940

    Date : 12 November 1959
    Details : Seventeen porpoises landed in a large shore seine and two more together at Malpe on the South Kanara coast. Four embryos recovered.
    References : Dawson, 1959

    Date : 12 February 1965
    Details : One female caught off Karwar.
    References : Devaraj & Sam Bennett, 1974

    Date : 10 February 1973
    Details : One young female specimen caught in gillnet off Calicut.
    References : Balan, 1976

    Date : 1976
    Details : Eight caught in gillnets off the Calicut coast.
    References : Lal Mohan, 1985

    Date : 20 February 1980
    Details : One caught near the mouth of the Zoari river off Vasco-da-Gama, one foetus recovered.
    References : Hafeezullah, 1984

    Date : July 1983–December 1986
    Details : One male and two females landed at Cochin Fisheries Harbour.
    References : Jayaprakash et al., 1995

    Date : January–March 1986
    Details : Two porpoises washed ashore at Gahirmatha, Orissa coast.
    References : James et al., 1989

    Date : January–March 1987
    Details : Two porpoises washed ashore at Gahirmatha, Orissa coast.
    References : James et al., 1989

    Date : 8 July 1988
    Details : One 77 cm long female landed at Mandapam.
    References : Nammalwar et al., 1994

    Date : 11 August 1990
    Details : One 1.32 m long female landed at Pillaimadam, near Mandapam.
    References : Nammalwar et al., 1994

    Date : 16 November 1990
    Details : One 1.26 m female landed at Verkodu, Rameswaram.
    References : Nammalwar et al., 1994

    Date : January 1992
    Details : Three specimens stranded or washed ashore near Thondi, Tamilnadu, in one week in a 5 km stretch of beach.
    References : Ganapathy, 1992

    Date : 29 January 1992
    Details : One immature male, 1.39 m long, collected from Porto Novo during an inshore gillnet operation.
    References : Kumaran & Subramanian, 1993

    Date : 25 October 1992
    Details : One 1.32 m long male landed at Agnitheertham, Rameswaram.
    References : Nammalwar et al., 1994

    Date : 1993 [?]
    Details : One male specimen entangled in gillnets off the Calicut coast.
    References : Lal Mohan, 1995

    Date : 14 September 1995
    Details : One young porpoise found washed ashore at Ullal, near Mangalore.
    References : Muthiah, 1995

    There seem to be few records from Sri Lanka, though a number of strandings have been noted in Pakistan.

    World Distribution: The Finless Porpoise is found in coastal waters of the Indo-Pacific, from Pakistan and India to China, Korea and Japan, including South-East Asia and Indonesia. 

    Could Be Confused With: There is a possibility of confusion with the Irrawaddy Dolphin Orcaella brevirostris, which also occurs in the same area.

    Species : Finless Porpoise
    Size : Small
    Colour : The shade is more blue than gray.
    Fin: Dorsal fin absent

    Species : Irrawaddy Dolphin
    Size : Relatively large
    Colour : The shade is more gray than blue.
    Fin: Dorsal fin with rounded tip present

    Diagnostic Features: At sea, Absence of dorsal fin, rounded melon, absence of beak.

    Stranded specimens: The absence of a dorsal fin and beak; jaws with 13 to 22 pairs of spade-shaped teeth in each jaw. 

    Pygmy Killer Whale

    At Miyajima Public Aquarium, Japan

    Size comparison against an average human

    Conservation Status

    Vulnerable(IUCN 3.1)[1]

    Scientific Classification

    Kingdom Animalia
    Phylum Chordata
    Class Mammalia
    Subclass Eutheria
    Order Cetacea
    Suborder Odontoceti
    Family Phocoenidae
    Genus Neophocaena
    Species N. phocaenoides

    Binomial Name

    Neophocaena phocaenoides

    ( G. Cuvier, 1829 )

    Finless Porpoise range.

    Source: Wikipedia